If you had any doubts that the concentration of food and farming resources is about amassing power as much as it’s about amassing money, this report will put your doubts to rest. The authors lay it out: The worldwide combination of land grabbing, resource hoarding, and patents on seeds, animals and chemicals, have put the future of humanity at risk. This is the most important study we’ve seen in years. Read it, then resist! https://farmactionalliance.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/Hendrickson-et-al.-2020.-Concentration-and-Its-Impacts-FINAL.pdf

For more than ten years, The Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future has been studying the impacts of factory farming on consumers, animals, neighborhoods near Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) and society. After Covid-19 struck the world, the problems with CAFOs have become even more obvious. In this study, Johns Hopkins lays out some of the health problems associated with communicable diseases and gives a path for safeguarding human health:https://clf.jhsph.edu/publications/safeguard-us-food-supply-chain-during-covid-19-pandemic-we-must-protect-food-and

Resources regarding health of people near CAFOs: We know you don’t want to read all these right away, but here’s a list to get you started on some hot, muggy day (or some frigid night) when you’re holed up inside! Or just scan through the titles to see what’s available.

We can think of many reasons for a moratorium on Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations–threats to water aquifers, rampant disease in existing facilities, growing evidence for human health dangers from chemicals used to raise grains for animal feeds–and this call from America’s largest public health organization is a welcome piece of news. On the state level, Iowa’s many organizations are asking for a statewide moratorium. Iowa, with its problems in urban water purification after rural CAFO pollution, may lead us to better policy for the future.https://clf.jhsph.edu/about-us/news/news-2019/nations-leading-public-health-organization-urges-halt-all-new-and-expanding?fbclid=IwAR0WrnqVuUleaeYkcKk0ED-kMIaFxBc2DeTcJcxFuSPub0gH0VCjoXur5Xw


Akdeniz, N., et al. (2012) Odor and Odorous Chemical Emissions from Animal Buildings: Part 2. Transactions of the ASABE. Vol 55 No. 6: 2235-2245. https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1238&context=abe_eng_pubs

Barrett, J.R. (2006). Hogging the air: CAFO emissions reach into schools. Environmental Health Perspectives 114. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1440820/

Batt, A.L., Snow, D.D., & Aga, D.S. (2006). Occurrence of sulfonamide antimicrobials in private water wells in Washington County, Idaho, USA. Chemosphere, 64(11), 1963–1971. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16497355

Bayer, R. (2007). The continuing tensions between individual rights and public health. EMBO Reports. Vol 8, No. 12: 1099-1103. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2267241/

Bereznicki, S.D., et. al. (2012) Odor and Odorous Chemical Emissions from Animal Buildings: Part 1. Project Overview, Collection Methods, and Quality Control. Transactions of the ASABE. Vol 55 No. 6: 2325-2334.

Bowman, A., Mueller, K., & Smith, M. (2000). Increased animal waste production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs): Potential implications for public and environmental health. Nebraska Center for Rural Health Research.

Bradford SA, Segal E, Zheng W, Wang Q, Hutchins SR. (2008) Reuse of concentrated animal feeding operation wastewater on agricultural lands. Journal of Environmental Quality. Sep-Oct;37 (5 Suppl):S97-S115. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18765783

Buka, I., et al. (2006). The effects of air pollution on the health of children. Paediatr Child Health. Oct; 11(8): 513–516. https://academic.oup.com/pch/article/11/8/513/2648329

Burkholder, J., Libra, B., Weyer, P., Heathcote, S., Kolpin, D., Thorne, P., et al. (2007). Impacts of waste from concentrated animal feeding operations on water quality. Environmental Health Perspectives, 11(2), 308–312. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17384784

Burns, R., Xin, H., Gates, R., Li, H., Hoff, S., Moody, L., et al. (2007). Tyson broiler ammonia emission monitoring project: Final report. https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1014&context=abe_eng_reports

Carrel, M., et.al. (2014). Residential Proximity to Large Numbers of Swine in Feeding Operations Is Associated with Increased Risk of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)…Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. Vol. 35, No. 2 (February), pp. 190-192. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/infection-control-and-hospital-epidemiology/article/residential-proximity-to-large-numbers-of-swine-in-feeding-operations-is-associated-with-increased-risk-of-methicillinresistant-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-at-time-of-hospital-admission-in-rural-iowa-veterans/9E28D64BD5D7C8D0883A19F4F77B9691

Center for Livable Future. (2009). Flies may spread drug-resistant bacteria from poultry operations. https://www.jhsph.edu/news/news-releases/2009/graham-flies.html

Cerro Gordo County, Iowa. (2002). Ordinance #40: Animal confinement moratorium ordinance.

Chapin, A. et al. (2005) Airborne Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from a Concentrated Swine Feeding Operation. Environmental Health Perspectives • VOLUME 113; NUMBER 2: 137-142. https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/doi/full/10.1289/ehp.7473

Cimitile, M. (2009). Crops absorb livestock antibiotics, science shows. Environmental Health News. January. http://www.qcmaxmuscle.com/articles/Crops_absorb_livestock_antibiotics.pdf

Cogliani, C., Goossens, H., and Greko, C. (2011) “Restricting Antimicrobial Use in Food Animals: Lessons from Europe,” Microbe, no. 6: 274-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3853314/

Congressional Research Service. (2008). Animal waste and water quality: EPA regulation of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL33656.pdf

Constitution of the World Health Organization. In: World Health Organization: Basic documents. 45th ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005. https://www.google.com/search?q=Constitution+of+the+World+Health+Organization.+In&rlz=1C1GGRV_enUS751US751&oq=Constitution+of+the+World+Health+Organization.+In&aqs=chrome..69i57.2511j0j4&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

Dakota Rural Action. (2006). CAFO economic impact. https://dakotarural.wordpress.com/2016/01/16/weekend-special-the-hidden-costs-of-cafos/

Davis, G. S., and L. B. Price. (2016). Recent research examining links among Klebsiella pneumoniae from food, food animals, and human extraintestinal infections. Current Environmental Health Reports 3(2):128–135. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27022987

Donham, K.J. (2010). Community and occupational health concerns in pork production–A review. Journal of Animal Science. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20154166

Donham, K.J., Wing, S., Osterberg, D., Flora, J.L., Hodne, C., Thu, K.M., et al. (2007). Community health and socioeconomic issues surrounding CAFOs. Environmental Health Perspectives 115(2), 317–320. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17384786

Economou, V. and Gousia, P. (2015) Agriculture and food animals as a source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Infect Drug Resist. 8: 49–61. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25878509

Edwards, B. (2013) CAFOs and Environmental Justice: The Case of North Carolina. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol 121, No. 6: A182-A189. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25878509

Elliott, K. 2015. Antibiotic on the farm: Agriculture’s role in drug resistance. Center for Global Development. http://www.cgdev.org/sites/default/files/CGD-Policy-Paper-59-Elliott-Antibiotics-Farm-Agriculture-Drug-Resistance.pdf

Fidler, DP. (1998). Legal Issues Associated with Antimicrobial Drug Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. Vol 4, No. 2, April-June 169-177. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9621187

Fox, C. (2011). Resisting antibiotic resistance: legal strategies to maintain man’s dominion over microbes. HOUS. Journal of HEALTH L. & POLICY 35–62. https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Fox,+C.+(2011).+Resisting+antibiotic+resistance&hl=en&as_sdt=0&as_vis=1&oi=scholart

Gibbs, SG., et al. (2006). Isolation of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria from the Air Plume Downwind of a Swine Confined or Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation. Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 114, No. 7: 1032-1037. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16835055

Guo, H. et. al. (2005).DEVELOPMENT OF THE OFFSET MODEL FOR DETERMINATION OF ODOR-ANNOYANCE-FREE SETBACK DISTANCES FROM ANIMAL PRODUCTION SITES: PART II. MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATIONS. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Vol. 48(6): 2269−2276. https://elibrary.asabe.org/abstract.asp?aid=20089 and https://elibrary.asabe.org/abstract.asp?aid=20090

Hatcher, SM, et al. (2016) The Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage among Industrial Hog Operation Workers, Community Residents, and Children Living in Their Households: North Carolina, USA. Environ Health Perspect. Oct 18. https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/doi/pdf/10.1289/EHP35

Hatcher, SM, et al. (2016) Occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in surface waters near industrial hog operation spray fields. Sci Total Environ. 565: 1028-1036. https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/doi/full/10.1289/ehp.1205436

Heederik, D., Sigsgaard, T., Thorne, P.S., Kline, J.N., Avery, R., Bønløkke, et al. (2007). Health effects of airborne exposures from concentrated animal feeding operations. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(2), 298–302. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17384782

Herriges, J.A., Secchi, S., & Babcock, B.A. (2005). Living with hogs in Iowa: The impact of livestock facilities on rural residential property values. Land Economics, 81, 530–545. http://le.uwpress.org/content/81/4/530.short

Hodne, C. J. (2005) Concentrating on Clean Water: The Challenge of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations. The Iowa Policy Project.  https://www.iowapolicyproject.org/2005docs/050406-cafo-fullx.pdf

Horrigan, L., Lawrence, R.S., & Walker, P. (2002). How sustainable agriculture can address theenvironmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture. Environmental Health Perspectives, 110(5), 445–456. https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/doi/abs/10.1289/ehp.02110445

Hribar, C. and Schultz, M. (2010). Understanding Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and Their Impact on Communities. National Association of Local Boards of Health. https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/docs/understanding_cafos_nalboh.pdf

Huijsdens, X.W., et. al. (2006). Community-acquired MRSA and pig-farming. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials. 5:26. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17096847

Jacobson, LD, et. al. (2005). Development of the OFFSET (Odor from feedlots – setback estimation tool) for determination of Odor-Annoyance-Free Setback Distances from Animal Production Sites: Part I. Model Development and Evaluations. Transactions of ASAE. Vol 48(6): 2259-2268. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265525684_Development_of_the_OFFSET_model_for_determination_of_odor-annoyance-free_setback_distances_from_animal_production_sites_Part_II_Model_development_and_evaluations

Jacobson, LD, et. al. (2005). Development of the OFFSET (Odor from feedlots – setback estimation tool) for determination of Odor-Annoyance-Free Setback Distances from Animal Production Sites: Part II. Model Development and Evaluations. Transactions of ASAE. Vol 48(6): 2269-2276. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jun_Zhu37/publication/265525684_Development_of_the_OFFSET_model_for_determination_of_odor-annoyance-free_setback_distances_from_animal_production_sites_Part_II_Model_development_and_evaluations/links/54ab01640cf2bce6aa1d820a/Development-of-the-OFFSET-model-for-determination-of-odor-annoyance-free-setback-distances-from-animal-production-sites-Part-II-Model-development-and-evaluations.pdf


Kaufman, M. (2000). Worries rise over effect of antibiotics in animal feed; Humans seen vulnerable to drug-resistant germs. Washington Post, p. A01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPcap/2000-03/17/071r-031700-idx.html

Kleinman, MT. (2000). The health effects of air pollution on children. Prepared for California Air Resources Board, California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Irvine, CA: University of California Irvine Department of Community and Environmental Medicine. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/289638217_The_Health_effects_of_air_pollution_on_children

Littmann, J. (2015). The Ethical Significance of Antimicrobial Resistance. Public Health Ethics. Vol. 8, No. 3. 209-224. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4638062/

Lorimor, J. et al. (2010) Chapter 10. Emissions Control Systems. In: Iowa Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations Air Quality Study Final Report. pp. 202-212.

MacDonald, J.M. and McBride, W.D. (2009). The transformation of U.S. livestock agriculture: Scale, efficiency, and risks. United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ers.usda.gov/webdocs/publications/44292/10992_eib43.pdf?v=41055%22

Marshall, B.M. and S. B. Levy. (2011). Food Animals and Antimicrobials: Impacts on Human Health. Clinical Micro Rev. 24(4):718-733. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21976606

Massey, R. and Ulmer, A. (2008). Agriculture and greenhouse gas emission. University of MissouriExtension. https://extension2.missouri.edu/g310

Merkel, M. (2002). Raising a stink: Air emissions from factory farms. Environmental Integrity Project. Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) Toxics Steering Group (TSG). (2006). http://environmentalintegrity.org/pdf/publications/CAFOAirEmissions_white_paper.pdf

Michigan State University Extension. (n.d.) Concentrated animal feedlot operations (CAFOs) chemicals associated with air emissions.  Air emission reporting under EPCRA for CAFOs. https://www.michigan.gov/documents/CAFOs-Chemicals_Associated_with_Air_Emissions_5-10-06_158862_7.pdf

Mirabelli, M.C., Wing, S., Marshall, S.W., & Wilcosky, T.C. (2006). Race, poverty, and potential exposure of middle-school students to air emissions from confined swine feeding operations. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(4), 591–596. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16581551

Nadimpalli, M. et al. (2016) Livestock-Associated, Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage and Recent Skin and Soft Tissue Infection among Industrial Hog Operation Workers. PLoS One. 11(11):e0165713. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0165713

Nicolai, R. and Pohl, S. Understanding livestock odors. South Dakota Cooperative Extension Services. Publ. FS-925. https://openprairie.sdstate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1104&context=extension_fact

O’Neill, J. (2015). Antimicrobials in agriculture and the environment: Reducing unnecessary use and waste: The Review on Antimicrobial Resistance. https://amr-review.org/sites/default/files/Antimicrobials%20in%20agriculture%20and%20the%20environment%20-%20Reducing%20unnecessary%20use%20and%20waste.pdf

Pew Charitable Trusts. (n.d.) Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in animals and unnecessary human health risks. https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/projects/antibiotic-resistance-project

Pew Charitable Trusts. (2013). Antibiotic Resistance Project, GAIN: How a New Law Is Stimulating the Development of Antibiotics (Philadelphia, PA: Pew Charitable Trusts, November 7). https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/issue-briefs/2013/11/07/gain-how-a-new-law-is-stimulating-the-development-of-antibiotics

Pew Charitable Trusts. (2014) Antibiotic Resistance Project, Gaps in FDA’s Antibiotics Policy (Philadelphia, PA: Pew Charitable Trusts, November 30). https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/issue-briefs/2014/11/gaps-in-fdas-antibiotics-policy

Pew Commission on Industrial Animal Farm Production. (2009). Putting meat on the table: Industrial farm animal production in America. http://www.pewtrusts.org/~/media/Assets/2008/PCIFAP_Exec-Summary.pdf

Purdue Extension. (2007). Contained animal feeding operations—Insect considerations. https://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/ID/cafo/ID-353.pdf

Purdue Extension. (2008). Community impacts of CAFOs: Property value. https://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/ID/ID-363-W.pdf

Rhouma, M., et al. (2016). Colistin in Pig Production: Chemistry, Mechanism of Antibacterial Action, Microbial Resistance Emergence, and One Health Perspectives. Front. Microbiol. Vol. 7:1-22. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01789/full

Robinson, T. P. et al. (2016). Animal production and antimicrobial resistance in the clinic. Lancet 387 No. 10014:e1–3. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(15)00730-8/fulltext

Schmalzried, H.D. & Fallon, L.F., Jr. (2007). Large-scale dairy operations: Assessing concerns of neighbors about quality-of-life issues. Journal of Dairy Science, 90(4), 2047-2051. https://www.journalofdairyscience.org/article/S0022-0302(07)71693-4/abstract

Schmalzried, H.D. & Fallon, L.F., Jr. (2008). A proactive approach for local public health districts to address concerns about proposed large-scale dairy operations. Ohio Journal of Environmental Health, Fall/Winter 2008, 20-25.

Science Daily. (2016) Algal bloom. https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/algal_bloom.htm

Sierra Club Michigan Chapter. (n.d.) Glossary of CAFO terms. https://www.sierraclub.org/michigan/cafo-glossary

Sigurdarson,S.T. & Kline, I.N. (2006). School proximity to concentrated animal feeding operations and prevalence of asthma in students. Chest, 129, 1486–1491. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16778265

Sneeringer, S., et al. (2015). Economics of antibiotic use in U.S. livestock production. USDA. https://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/pub-details/?pubid=45488

Spellberg, B. et.al. (2016). Antibiotic Resistance in Humans and Animals. Natl Acad Med.https://nam.edu/antibiotic-resistance-in-humans-and-animals/

Spellman, F.R. & Whiting, N.E. (2007). Environmental management of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. https://www.crcpress.com/Environmental-Management-of-Concentrated-Animal-Feeding-Operations-CAFOs/Spellman-Whiting/p/book/9780849370984

Van Boeckel TP, Brower C, Gilbert M, et al. (2015) Global trends in antimicrobial use in food animals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112(18):5649-5654. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25792457

Ventola, CL. (2015) The Antibiotic Resistance Crisis Part 1. Causes and Threats. P & T. Vol. 40, No. 4: 277-283. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25859123

Ventola, CL. (2015) The Antibiotic Resistance Crisis Part 2. Management Strategies and New Agents. P & T Vol. 40, No. 5: 344-352. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4422635/

Von Essen, SG and Auvermann, BW. (2005). Health Effects from Breathing Air Near CAFOs for Feeder Cattle or Hogs. Journal of Agromedicine, Vol. 10(4): 55-64. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16702123

Wang, H., et al. (2017). The antibiotic resistance of swine manure is significantly altered by association with the Musca domestica larvae gut microbiome. ISME Journal 11, 100-111. January. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27458785

Wisconsin Dept. of Health Services. (2015) CAFOs and Public Health. P-00777. https://www.dhs.wisconsin.gov/publications/p00977.pdf

Yu, ZLT, et al. (2013). Critical Review: Regulatory Incentives and Impediments for Onsite Graywater Reuse in the United States. Water Environment Research, Volume 85, Number 7: 650-662. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23944147